MetaCyc Pathway: ephedrine biosynthesis
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: ephedrine biosynthesis

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Superclasses: BiosynthesisSecondary Metabolites BiosynthesisNitrogen-Containing Secondary Compounds BiosynthesisAlkaloids Biosynthesis

Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : Ephedra gerardiana

Expected Taxonomic Range: Ephedra

Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are alkaloids produced in the plant genus Ephedra. Ephedrine is used by human beings as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, concentration aid, decongestant and to treat hypotension from such as spinal/epidural anaesthesia. In traditional Chinese medicine, ephedrine has been used in the treatment of asthma. Ephedrine acts on neurotransmission in the brain due to its ability to increase the release of neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. The ephedrine biosynthesis pathway was proposed based on radio tracer experiments. No enzyme has been characterized for this pathway.

Citations: [GrueSorensen94, Yamasaki73]

Created 11-Apr-2008 by Zhang P, TAIR


GrueSorensen94: Grue-Sorensen, Gunnar, Spenser, Ian (1994). "Biosynthetic route to the ephedra alkaloids." J. Am. Chem. Soc., 116:6195-6200.

Yamasaki73: Yamasaki, Kazuo, Tamaki, Taro, Uzawa, Sumiko, Sankawa, Ushio, Shibata, Shoji (1973). "Participation of C6-C1 unit in the biosynthesis of ephedrine in Ephedra." Phytochemistry, 12:2877-2882.

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Kim01: Kim SH, Virmani D, Wake K, MacDonald K, Kronstad JW, Ellis BE (2001). "Cloning and disruption of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene from Ustilago maydis." Curr Genet 40(1);40-8. PMID: 11570515

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Vannelli07: Vannelli T, Wei Qi W, Sweigard J, Gatenby AA, Sariaslani FS (2007). "Production of p-hydroxycinnamic acid from glucose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli by expression of heterologous genes from plants and fungi." Metab Eng 9(2);142-51. PMID: 17204442

Xiang02: Xiang L, Moore BS (2002). "Inactivation, complementation, and heterologous expression of encP, a novel bacterial phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene." J Biol Chem 277(36);32505-9. PMID: 12082112

Xue07: Xue Z, McCluskey M, Cantera K, Sariaslani FS, Huang L (2007). "Identification, characterization and functional expression of a tyrosine ammonia-lyase and its mutants from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides." J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 34(9);599-604. PMID: 17602252

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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