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MetaCyc Enzyme: phytoene desaturase

Gene: crtI Accession Number: G-11381 (MetaCyc)

Species: Rhodobacter capsulatus

Summary:
phytoene desaturase catalyzes the desaturation of all-trans-phytoene to all-trans neurosporene in three steps.

The crtI gene from Rhodobacter capsulatus was found to be responsible for this activity [Giuliano86]. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resulting protein was purified [Raisig96]. The enzyme converted all-trans-phytoene, as well as the intermediates all-trans phytofluene and all-trans-ζ-carotene, to all-trans neurosporene, the end product of the reaction.

1,2-epoxy phytoene was also a suitable substrate.

Gene Citations: [Bartley89]

Unification Links
:
InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR008150

Accession Numbers : EG10336 (EcoCyc)b2167b2167

, , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014105
Synonyms: ptsF, Enzyme IIBCfru, EIIBCfru, EIIB'BCfru, Enzyme IIB'BCfru
Regulation Summary Diagram: ?RNAP s70 fruB , fruK , fruA
Gene-Reaction Schematic: ? Crano EC#
ECK2160
, ,,
Gene: Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR10668:SF3, , fruAPfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01593Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00982

50S
30S FruA
↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system. + + <=> + 3 a reduced electron acceptor The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B FruA FruA 1.3.99.28 Credits: Credits: SRI International In Pathways: neurosporene biosynthesis
Summary: fruA expressed in trans restores the ability of a fruA transposon mutant to grow on 2.5mM fructose as carbon source and to phosphorylate fructose in vitro. FruA is predicted to be an inner membrane protein [Prior88]. FruA lacking the B' domain is able to transport fructose in vivo and to phosphorylate fructose

. FruA lacking the B' domain shows less affinity for FruB in vitro. Loss of the B' domain mainly affects phosphoryl transfer between FruB which contains the pseudo-HPr domain and FruA Enzymatic reaction of: ζ-carotene desaturase (phytoene desaturase)[. FruA containing a C112S amino acid substitution is unable to transport fructose . FruA containing a C112S amino acid substitution is unable to transport fructose in vivo
Charbit96
]
or in vitro
. The IIC domain of FruA is predicted to contain 9 transmembrane segments. FruA is likely to function as a homo-oligomer

[ onMouseOver="return overlib(' Charbit A, Reizer J, Saier MH (1996). "Function of the duplicated IIB domain and oligomeric structure of the fructose permease of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 271(17);9997-10003. PMID: 8626640', WIDTH, 500);" onmouseout="return nd();">Charbit96].

This subunit contains PTS Enzyme IIB', IIB and IIC domains.

The crystal structure of this subunit has been resolved to 2.6 Å [ all-trans-ζ-carotene + <=> Shin08a ]all-trans. neurosporene + a reduced electron acceptor The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated. The reaction is favored in the direction shown. In Pathways: neurosporene biosynthesis Cofactors or Prosthetic Groups: FAD [Raisig96] Inhibitors (Unknown Mechanism): diphenylamine [Raisig96]Kinetic Parameters:

Substrate
Km Gene Citations: (μM)
Citations
[
all-trans-ζ-carotene
all-trans-ζ-carotene
onMouseOver="return overlib(' Reizer J, Reizer A, Kornberg HL, Saier MH (1994). "Sequence of the fruB gene of Escherichia coli encoding the diphosphoryl transfer protein (DTP) of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system." FEMS Microbiol Lett 1994;118(1-2);159-62. PMID: 8013873', WIDTH, 500);" onmouseout="return nd();">
Reizer94a,
16.6
Dobrynina95][Raisig96]

Enzymatic reaction of: phytofluene desaturase (phytoene desaturase)

Locations

+↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated. Length: 1692 bp / 563 aa + a reduced electron acceptor all-trans phytofluene
Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 57.519 kD (from nucleotide sequence)
Unification Links: In PathwaysASAP:ABE-0007172: , , , EchoBASE:EB0332, EcoGene:EG10336, EcoliWiki:b2167, OU-Microarray:b2167, PortEco:fruA, PR:PRO_000022699, Pride:P20966, Protein Model Portal:P20966, RefSeq:NP_416672, RegulonDB:EG10336, SMR:P20966, ,
Cofactors or Prosthetic Groups: , FADUniProt:P20966, , Inhibitors (Unknown Mechanism): InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006327diphenylamine,,

Map Position: [2,257,741 <- 2,259,432] (48.66 centisomes) an oxidized electron acceptorall-trans - ζ-carotene The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B
Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51104
Enzymatic reaction of: phytoene desaturase Enzymatic reaction of: phytoene desaturase
The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated. The reaction is favored in the direction shown. In Pathways: neurosporene biosynthesis Cofactors or Prosthetic Groups: FAD [ Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?Raisig96] Raisig96: Raisig A, Bartley G, Scolnik P, Sandmann G (1996). "Purification in an active state and properties of the 3-step phytoene desaturase from Rhodobacter capsulatus overexpressed in Escherichia coli." J Biochem 119(3);559-64. PMID: 8830054 Giuliano G, Pollock D, Scolnik PA (1986). "The gene crtI mediates the conversion of phytoene into colored carotenoids in Rhodopseudomonas capsulata." J Biol Chem 261(28);12925-9. PMID: 3020015 Inhibitors (Unknown Mechanism): diphenylaminediphenylaminei1: no EC# [fruARaisig96] References1 Bartley89: 2 Bartley GE, Scolnik PA (1989). "Carotenoid biosynthesis in photosynthetic bacteria. Genetic characterization of the Rhodobacter capsulatus CrtI protein." J Biol Chem 264(22);13109-13. PMID: 2546948 Giuliano86: fruBno EC#no EC#
15-cis-phytoene+an oxidized electron acceptorall-trans phytofluene+a reduced electron acceptor
In Paralogous Gene Group
: :

188 (6 members)

InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013011, [InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013014, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02302Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02378Raisig96,] Raisig96,]
Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51099 neurosporene biosynthesisCGSC:350 [
Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003352 , onMouseOver="return overlib(' Raisig A, Bartley G, Scolnik P, Sandmann G (1996). "Purification in an active state and properties of the 3-step phytoene desaturase from Rhodobacter capsulatus overexpressed in Escherichia coli." J Biochem 119(3);559-64. PMID: 8830054', WIDTH, 500);" onmouseout="return nd();">InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003353 Raisig96, ] Raisig96, ] InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003501 [Click for more details...]" border=0>

inner membrane onClick="location.href='/ECOLI/NEW-IMAGE?type=LOCUS-POSITION&object=EG10336&chromosome=COLI-K12'" onClick="location.href='/ECOLI/NEW-IMAGE?type=LOCUS-POSITION&object=EG10336&chromosome=COLI-K12'" > The reaction is favored in the direction shown. The reaction is favored in the direction shown.


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Thu Jan 29, 2015, biocyc14.